Word imitation has great importance in literature. Aristotle explained the meaning of this word in order to defend poetry which is called Aristotle’s concept/theory of imitation. Although he was not the first to use this word yet he comes first in redefining its meanings. The word “imitation” was used as a synonym for a copy of copy before Aristotle. Plato used this word for the first time. He was of the considered view that poetry was a shadow of a shadow, thus, it was twice away from reality.
It is better to understand the meanings of imitation as demonstrated by Plato before discussing Aristotle’s concept/theory of imitation.
One thing should be remembered that poetry does not mean only modern poetry. It nowadays is a genre of literature but in the past, drama, comedy and epic poem was in poetic form. Furthermore, everything was called poetry and writers were called poets. Hence, when we (or Aristotle) mentions poets it should be considered every writer whether he is a dramatist, novelist or poet. Likewise, poetry means whole literature.
Plato’s Concept/Theory of Imitation:
Plato was against poetry and poets. He said that the poets used to present a copy of nature in poetry. He quoted an example of a painter and said that a painter first saw nature and then created its copy on the canvas. Plato was of the view that the world had been created from an idea; the idea was an original thing, whereas this world was its copy.
Let’s look at an example to clarify it; when a carpenter builds a chair, he has an idea in his mind, which can be called a blueprint. When he builds a chair, it is a copy of that idea. Similarly, this world was created from an idea, therefore, it was not original but a copy. A poet imitates nature in his poetry which is already a copy. Hence, he makes a copy of a copy. In this way, poetry is twice away from reality.
Aristotle’s Concept/Theory of Imitation:
Aristotle answered Plato and refuted charges against poets. He redefined the meanings of imitation. Regardless of that whole concept of idea and copy remained the same. In simple words, Aristotle agreed that the world was created from an idea and the world was its copy. He also agreed that a poet imitated reality/nature but the meaning of the word imitation did not mean mere copy. He did not consider poetry twice away from reality
Imitation is a Creative Process:
Imitation is a creative process in the eyes of Aristotle. He links poetry with music instead of painting. He says that poetry is pleasant just like a flute’s sound that is full of harmony, therefore, it is not right to compare poets with painters and poetry with painting. A poet, further says Aristotle, does not present things as they appear but bestows them his imagination. Hence, poetry is not the process of seeing things and simply converting them to words; a poet reinvents things with his imagination and experiences. Aristotle’s concept/theory of imitation can be concluded in the following words:-
“objects which in themselves we view with disgust, we delight to contemplate when reproduced with minute fidelity: such as the forms of the most ignoble animals and dead bodies.”Aristotle – Poetics
Thus, poetry is more philosophical and more conducive to understanding than philosophy itself. He further says:-
“idealised representation of character, emotion, action—under forms manifest in sense.”Aristotle – Poetics
Thus, a poet does not tell a lie. He imitates things from his mental power which can touch the senses, therefore he brings nature closer to reality.
Three Modes of Imitation in Aristotle’s Concept/Theory:
Aristotle’s concept/theory describes three modes of imitation. The first chapter of the poetics is relevant in this regard, in which he tries to explain the mode of imitation. The important portion is reproduced as under:-
“Epic poetry and Tragedy, Comedy also and Dithyrambic poetry, as also the music of the flute and the lyre in most of their forms, are in their general conception modes of imitation. They differ, however, from one another in three respects—their medium, objects and the manner or mode of imitation, being in each case distinct.”Aristotle – Poetics
There are three modes of imitation in the eyes of Aristotle.
- Comedy and
- Epic Poetry.
Poetry Presents Men in Action:
In tragedy and poetry, the manner of a poet is action, whereas, in the remaining one, his manner is narrative. Aristotle’s concept/theory of imitation emphasizes “Men in action”. Supernatural elements cannot be shown in dramatic forms on the stage, therefore, they can be included in epic poetry. Tragedy presents men better than they are but comedy presents them as worse. However, the purpose remains the same which is to imitate things with the power of imagination.
Aristotle has not mentioned the third form of poetry. Critics raise objections on it. They say that Aristotle is not aware of the third form i.e. reality. Many dramatists, in the modern world, are sketching realism but it does not mean that they have no creative powers. Though the reality is being presented yet there are feelings and emotions in it. Moreover, emotions and feelings can only be added if the poet/dramatist has good imaginative powers. A true poet illustrates the pain and sorrows of life, which are real but always effects.
Imitation Vs. Reality and History:
If imitation is the name of copying facts then there must be no creativity in poetry. As mentioned earlier, Aristotle argues that a poet presents men in action. He presents men as they were or are or as they ought to be. If men are being presented as they are without any blend of imagination and creative power then it is not poetry but history. Creativity differentiates history from poetry. A historian may also write about the sorrows and pains, suffered by humans, but it would not necessarily be filled with emotions. The strong power of imagination is required to convert ordinary and simple incidents to extraordinary events so that they cause “catharsis”. Aristotle’s redefined “imitation” is the only concept/theory, through which poetry becomes highly effective.
The upshot of the above discussion is that Aristotle encouraged poets to write poetry. He blows a new soul to the word “imitation”. Plato’s charges against the poets have successfully been refuted by Aristotle in his book “Poetics”. Aristotle’s concept/theory of imitation shows the world that it is not merely a procedure of copying things but a creative process, which requires high imaginative powers. Hence, it cannot be called duplicating things. It is a process of creating something astonishing from ordinary things with the help of a strong vision. A poet, hence, through imitation brings things closer to reality instead of taking them twice away from reality.